The 1982 Calder Cup Playoffs of the American Hockey League began on April 7, 1982. The eight teams that qualified played best-of-5 series for Division Semifinals and best-of-7 series for Division Finals. The division champions played a best-of-7 series for the Calder Cup. The Calder Cup Final ended on May 10, 1982 with the New Brunswick Hawks defeating the Binghamton Whalers four games to one to win the Calder Cup for the only time in team history.
After the 1981–82 AHL regular season, the top four teams from each division qualified for the playoffs. However, since the fifth-placed team of the Southern division (Adirondack) earned more points than the fourth-placed team in the Northern division (Springfield), Adirondack played in the Northern division portion of the bracket in place of Springfield. The New Brunswick Hawks finished the regular season with the best overall record.
In each round, the team that earned more points during the regular season receives home ice advantage, meaning they receive the "extra" game on home-ice if the series reaches the maximum number of games. There is no set series format due to arena scheduling conflicts and travel considerations.